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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 60 (1988)

CONTENTS

Excavations At East Gilling Long Barrow by P.R. Wilson

East Gilling Long Barrow, North Yorkshire, lies 1.5km east of Yearsley village on the south-western slope of Black Hill just below the summit. The barrow, which is on an area of Great and Inferior Oolite bedrock, is also known as Yearsley, or Black Hill Long Barrow, and is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The mound is orientated south-east to north-west and in plan it appears ‘pear-shaped’. Side ditches are not visible on the surface, nor were they revealed in the contour survey of the site that was undertaken at the same time as the work described in this article.

 

Excavations At Burton Agnes Old Manor House by P.R. Wilson

Burton Agnes Old Manor House, North Humberside, in the care of the then Historic Building and Monuments Commission for England (HBMC(E), originated as a Norman first-floor hall, above a vaulted undercroft. The exterior displays much evidence of the extensive rebuilding/re-facing that was undertaken (probably) in the early eighteenth century, notable on the southern and eastern sides which were visible from the ‘New Hall’ and its approaches. This might suggest that the alterations were undertaken for aesthetic reasons, with a view to making the Old Manor House appear more in keeping with the adjacent seventeenth century mansion. This is supported by the fact that most of the eighteenth century work, which may date to 1712, appears to take the form of the ‘casing’ in brick of parts of the Norman masonry. Few twelfth-century features survive at first-floor level, although a first-floor doorway can be identified in the north wall. A spiral staircase in the north-western corner of the building is another original feature. In the post-medieval period an extension was built at right-angles to the Norman Hall on its north-eastern side.

In response to a serious problem of rising damp the Commission’s architects proposed the insertion of ‘air-drains’ along the interior and exterior faces of the walls and around the bases of the piers in the undercroft. It was clear that this would cause considerable damage to any surviving stratigraphy, with the structure being isolated from the surrounding area and c 20% of any deposits within the undercroft being removed. To establish the level of damage that might result from the proposed works HBMC(E) undertook a trial excavation in 1984. The excavation, the findings of which are considered in this paper, suggested that there would be significant damage and the proposal for ‘air-drains’ was abandoned.

 

A Pattern-Welded Anglo-Saxon Sword From Acklam Wold, North Yorkshire by B Agar & B. Gilmour

In November 1980 workmen attached to the Regular Army uncovered a shallow inhumation burial accompanied by a sword and a plain handmade pot on Greet’s Hill Road, Acklam Wold, North Yorkshire, on the site of the Anglian cemetery excavated by J. R. Mortimer in 1878. The finds were reported to John Dent of the Humberside Archaeological Unit, who subsequently supervised recording of the site. The sword, which forms the subject of this article is now on display, after cleaning and conservation, in the Yorkshire Museum, York.

 

Return Of The Fee Of Robert De Brus In Domesday by P. King

At Christmas 1085 King William the Conqueror issued orders for the making of his great survey, which became known as Domesday. Hitherto the portion of Domesday Book which is concerned with the fee of Robert de Brus in Yorkshire has received little attention. It extends not much beyond one side of a single folio and is the only return of a fee known not to date from the original inquiry of 1086. It is prefaced by the statement ’Hic est Feudum Rotberti de Bruis quod fut datum postquam Liber de Wintonia scriptio fuit’ and the lands which were listed are all recorded again elsewhere in Domesday as part of the fees of other lords or as part of the Terra Regis. Few of the principal students of Domesday studies have so much as mentioned this remarkable document and only Farrer ventured a date, suggesting that it was added in the decade after 1120. This paper will be largely concerned with the same evidence Ferrer used in reaching this conclusion, but will suggest that he dated the addition so late as a result of misinterpretation of that evidence. It will be shown that the return of the fee of Robert de Brus was drawn up in the period between the end of 1114 and 1119.

 

Pottery From Rievaulx Abbey by B.G. Drummond

After nearly four centuries following the Dissolution, the ruins of Rievaulx Abbey were taken into the care of the Commissioner of Works, now the Department of the Environment. During the refurbishing of the Abbey in the following decades pottery was recovered and stored on site until its subsequent transfer to Cleveland where the main collection was put in the care of the Cleveland County Archaeology Section. Currently (1988) the collection is unstratified and cannot be attributed to particular locations in the Abbey, although there is some evidence to show that the reredorter drain and the long house, which lie true west and east respectively of the infirmary cloister, and the lay brothers’ range to the north of the main cloister are among the places from which it was recovered. The pottery, which is the subject of this paper, is very largely glazed wares of various types and it seems likely that this reflects the choice of sherds retrieved rather than the absence of plain wares in pottery used in the Abbey. Despite the lack of direct evidence from the Abbey itself, most of the pottery can be assigned to particular wares and dates, using parallels and information from other sources.

 

Archiepiscopal Relations With The Clergy Of The Diocese Of York 1279-99 by G.M. Hallas

The Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 had marked the climax of the pontificate of Pope Innocent III in his attempt to bring about a great spiritual revival of Christendom. Its decrees had provided the archbishops and bishops of Europe with an extensive and far-reaching reform programme, which, being issued by the Pope in Council, had the full force of law. It was followed by other councils, notably, in 1274, the Second Council of Lyons, of Pope Gregory X, which declared pluralists excommunicate and laid stress on the idea of preaching a Crusade. Since the Fourth Lateran Council the papal legates Otto and Ottobon had been active in the application of these and further decrees to England, and apathy among the bishops was strongly criticised. This article attempts to examine the dealings of the Archbishops of York with the clergy of their diocese in the latter part of the thirteenth century, in the light of the papal enactments. It is clear from the evidence in the archiepiscopal registers that in their management of both the secular and regular clergy from 1279-99 there were certainly two archbishops who made considerable effort to enforce the reforming legislation of the Papacy.

 

Hatfield Manor House, South Yorkshire by J. Birch & P. Ryder

Hatfield, to the north-east of Doncaster, is one of the more attractive villages of the lowland east of South Yorkshire. It lies on an ‘island’ of glacial sands and gravels amongst the now drained ‘levels’ of the former Hatfield Chase, one of the most famous medieval hunting grounds in the North of England. The village has at its centre St Lawrence’s Church, of twelfth century and later date, and a number of interesting brick houses of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, some of which probably conceal remains of earlier timber-frames structures.

This article considers the Manor House which stands to the east of the main street of the village (the A18, here named ‘Manor Road’), to the south of the parish church. It is set back from the road in the centre of an enclosure which seems to have been ditched or moated. The eastern part of this enclosure remains open. Until the mid-1980s the only other buildings within the enclosed area were the eighteenth century Court House, fronting onto the street to the north-west of the Manor House, and a stable block and barn of similar date behind it, but a number of new houses have been built to the north and west of the old house, while the stable block has been renovated as a dwelling and the barn pulled down and rebuilt. This new development has blocked the former drive entrance to the manor house with its curved brick walls and stone-capped piers of late eighteenth or early nineteenth-century date, access now being by a narrow lane further to the north.

 

A Medieval Harbour At Flamborough by M. Johnson

Medieval coastal harbours are little known archaeological phenomena; this article comprises the results of a study concerned with one such possible site at Flamborough, North Humberside. Part 1 of this paper is concerned solely with archaeological evidence, Part 2, with historical evidence, whilst Part 3 is largely an attempt at synthesis to extract as much information as is reliably feasible.

 

The Goldsmiths Of Church Lane, Hull: 1527-1784 by A. Bennett

Church Lane was one of the narrow thoroughfares linking Hull’s two most important streets, High Street and Market Place, joining the latter just to the north of Holy Trinity church, from which it took its name. At the beginning of the sixteenth century a barber’s shop stood at one end of Church Lane and a brewhouse at the other, with tenements between leased to merchants, mariners and craftsmen working in the clothing and shoe trades. In 1527 a building on the north side of the street, next to the Market Place corner, was acquired by a goldsmith, John Harrison. In 1801 a woollen draper, John Hipsley, bought a run-down property on the north side of Church Lane, Hull, next to the junction with Market Place. He had already acquired the adjoining corner house, and by 1802 both had been demolished to make room for a substantial house and shop fronting on to Market Place. The Church Lane property had been used as a goldsmith’s shop and had a remarkably long association of over 250 years with this prestigious trade – wherever it appears in surviving documents from 1527 to 1784 it is recorded as owned or partly occupied by a goldsmith, and eleven worked or served an apprenticeship there. This paper examines the goldsmith’s trade.

 

Restoration Bourchiers Of Beningbrough Grange by P. Taylor

Surprisingly little has been known about the Bourchier family who owned the Beningbrough estates near York for two hundred and seventy years (1557-1927). Yet the extent of their lands there, and elsewhere in Yorkshire, at the peak of their eighteenth century prosperity indicates that the Bourchiers were important land-owners. Their wealth and line was founded in the sixteenth century by Ralph Bourchier of Haughton, Staffordshire, who inherited Beningbrough Grange from his uncle, John Banester of London. Ralph appears to ‘have made his way’ both through office holding in Yorkshire and with a long career in the House of Commons. Yet our knowledge of Sir Ralph Bourchier, as of other members of this family is slight. The only one to achieve his own place in the nation’s history, and that with sometimes misplaced notoriety, is Sir John Bourchier, the Puritan squire and regicide (d. 1660). Sir John apart, there is only the slighted and very occasional glimpse of any of the Bourchiers of Yorkshire as they appear ‘in the wings’ of historical record, narrative or biography. However, the discovery of some late seventeenth-century probate documents, together with the further research that these have encouraged, has proved most useful. It has thus become possible to shed some light on the family life and fortunes of the Bourchiers in the second half of the seventeenth century following the death of Sir John, saved from a traitor’s death by a whisker.

 

Orthostatic Field Walls On The North York Moors by D.A Spratt

The North York Moors comprise an upland area in the north-east of Yorkshire, bounded by the North Sea on the east, the Cleveland basin on the north, and the Vales of Mowbray and Pickering on the west and south. The central and northern moors consist of the Middle Jurassic sandstones. They are underlain by the Lower Jurassic shales which are frequently exposed in the many valleys now occupied by fertile farms, contrasting with the heather moorland. The field walls, both on the moors and in the valleys are made of the Middle Jurassic sandstones. The majority are built in drystone walling, that is with handleable stones placed flat one on another, the final wall being one or two stones wide. Frequently a line of vertical coping stones is laid along the top, a labour-saving method of finishing the wall, and a deterrent to sheep scaling it. In some places, widely scattered, there can be seen lengths or fragments of a different style of wall, the base of which is at least partly composed of large vertical stones, bedded into the earth, known as an orthostatic wall. These are considered in this article.

 

Politics And Agriculture In The East And North Ridings Of Yorkshire by J.P. Dodd

The 1854 Crop Statistics, which were used for the author’s paper in 1979, did not extend to the East and North Ridings. Therefore, other sources have been used, notably the several Reports and Inquiries launched by the pro-Corn Law faction during the first half of the nineteenth century. In these, farmers were represented as a much maligned class struggling to maintain their economic identity in the face of unsupportable costs. The present essay attempts to distinguish between the true state of agriculture and the ills from which it was alleged to suffer.

 

The Greenwell Catalogue: Addenda by I.A. Kinnes & I.H. Longworth

Since publication of the Greenwell Collection, further material from Rudston 66 has come to light in the Grantham Collection. The finds related here derive from a single cutting across the western ditch of Cursus A near its southern terminal on Woldgate, the Roman road from Bessingby Hill, on the outskirts of Bridlington, to Kilham.

 

A Battle-Axe From Appleton Roebuck by H. Mytum

A battle-axe was found by a driver of an earthmoving machine whilst cleaning out a ditch on Woolas Hall Farm in Appleton Roebuck, North Yorkshire. Relatively few prehistoric finds have been recovered from the Vale of York, and the particularly fine specimen considered by the author falls within a class of battle-axes well represented in Yorkshire, though not previously from the Vale.

 

Seventeenth-Century Designs For Stainbrough Hall by J. Miller

It is not often that one is able to compare an important seventeenth-century house, which has survived largely unaltered, with a set of drawings prepared for its erection. At Wentworth Castle, Stainborough, South Yorkshire, it appears that this may be possible. The house is not, of course, the huge eighteenth-century mansion which dominates Worsbrough Dale, but the much smaller Stainbrough Hall, around which the larger house was built and which still forms its heart and core. The drawings considered here are a set, now held by the Institute of British Studies at Yale, and published by John Harris in his recent book. If allowance is made for a number of alterations which have been made to Stainbrough Hall since its erection for Gervase Cutler in 1670-72, the plans correspond exactly with the building.

Frank Thorp - An Appreciation

Abstracts