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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 62 (1990)
CONTENTS


 

Two Food Vessels Of The Early Bronze Age From Settrington, Near Malton, North Yorkshire by R.A. Varley

The Food Vessels which form the subject of this paper were found near Settrington, North Yorkshire, during the early part of the nineteenth century. However, very little is known about the circumstances of their discovery or subsequent history. Food Vessel A is preserved in the Whitby Museum, Pannett Park, and is believed to have been excavated from a round barrow near Settrington. This information was derived by the writer from a label attached to the inside of the vessel, in the same handwriting as that on a label attached to a Collared Urn, presented to the museum in 1830.

The drawing and date of Food Vessel B were found in a manuscript attached as a proposed enlarged third edition of Thomas Hinderwell’s History and Antiquities of Scarborough. The only information relating to the discovery of this Food Vessel is noted at the top of the drawing, as being found on Settrington Brow in 1822.

 

A Second-Century Denarius Hoard From Grinton, North Yorkshire by P.J. Casey & P. Wenham

The coins discussed in this report were found in a field adjacent to Scarr House, Grinton, North Yorkshire. The coins were reported by the finders to the police and a coroner’s inquest was held at Leyburn in March 1988. The coins were declared to be treasure trove and are now in the custody of the Yorkshire Museum. The circumstances of the discovery were such as to suggest that the hoard had been held in an organic container, since no pottery was evident in the area of the find. The coins were described by the finders as being spread over an area, in a fan shaped distribution, suggesting disturbance at some stage by unrecorded agricultural activity. No Roman structures are known in the immediate area of the find.

 

Roman Coins From Hayton, East Yorkshire by J.A. McLinden

As a result of information supplied by a coin dealer in Hull, it became apparent that large numbers of Roman coins were being found in the area and that these finds were as a result of the activities of metal detectors working with the consent of local farmers. As the numbers and variety of coins indicated a major source, it was decided that they should be systematically recorded and this paper sets out the details of the coins reported during the period 1981-1983. All were found in the plough zone during the winter months. The author examined all the coins purchased by the dealer and also a further quantity retained by the finders. However, several others, with whom no contact could be made, are known to have found similar quantities and it has been estimated that perhaps as little as 50% of the total finds are actually reported here.

 

Monastery And Village At Crayke, North Yorkshire by K.A. Adams

In 1983, an excavation was conducted at Castle Garth, Crayke, North Yorkshire, in order to investigate a pre-fourteenth century cemetery first encountered during excavations in 1956. The excavation evidence, together with analysis of fieldwork, chance finds, maps and historical sources, suggests a settlement sequence running from the Roman period to the present. Of greatest interest is the evidence relating to the monastery founded by St Cuthbert in 685, and what followed it. This paper examines this evidence and draws some conclusions from it.

 

An Anglian Site On The Yorkshire Wolds by D. Haldenby

The site lies on arable land high on the Yorkshire Wolds some 10 miles from the coast, in the parish of Cottam and Cowlam between Driffield and Malton. One arm of a complex and deeply cut fluvio-glacial valley system lies adjacent to the site. This article is based upon metalwork found in plough-soil close to the surface by five metal detector enthusiasts, including the author, over two autumn seasons, following the site’s discovery in 1987. The importance of the material was immediately recognised and so systematic plotting of finds began, with more and more objects coming to light.

So far over sixty pieces of eighth and ninth century date have been found. Several items are quite corroded, having suffered through agricultural disturbance, whereas, happily, much appears to have been ploughed up only in recent years and so is still in a good state of preservation. The finds are spread over a wide area and several appear to have been broken in antiquity, all suggesting that this was a settlement site that has seen intense activity. Already the number of Middle Saxon strap ends, eighteen, surpasses that from York or Whitby. No other site has produced five disc or racket-headed pins from different sets, four being chip-carved. Eighteen more mundane pins have also been found. Additionally over two dozen knives of Saxon type have been found spread across the site.

 

Fieldwork In Cottam And Cowlam Parish by P. Didsbury

Field-walking was undertaken in April 1989 in order to gain as detailed a picture as possible of the nature and date-range of archaeological material present in the area of the Anglo-Saxon metalwork finds. This work was supervised by the present writer, and carried out by a team of Employment Trainees attached to the Humberside County Council Archaeology Unit, together with members of the East Riding Archaeological Society.

In order to maximise the recovery of material, cross-walking was employed, i.e. each 10m grid square was walked five times along each axis, the direction of walking being reversed at the end of the line of travel. This method ensures close coverage and has the added advantage of minimising the effect of light direction on recovery rates.

Three main categories of material were recovered, viz. Flint, animal bone, and pottery.

 

King John In Knaresborough: The First Known Royal Maundy by A. Kellett

This is an account of King John’s association with Knaresborough, and, in particular, his almsgiving here in 1210. The topic was initiated in a rather curious way by an incidental comment made by the writer when he was Mayor of Knaresborough (1984-5). Having been invited to attend the Royal Maundy in Ripon Cathedral in 1985 he remarked in his letter of acceptance to the Dean of Ripon that it was appropriate that Knaresborough should be represented, as King John had held a Royal Maundy in the town in 1210. The Dean mentioned this to officials of the royal Almonry, who expressed great surprise and interest. According to their records the first known Royal Maundy had taken place at Rochester in 1213. They had never heard of this alleged occasion in Knaresborough three years earlier. Was the Mayor sure of his facts?

 

East Lilling, North Yorkshire: The Deserted Medieval Village Reconsidered by V.G. Swann et al

Professor Maurice Beresford once wrote ‘East Lilling will always rank among my favourite lost village sites’. Thirty-five years on, the purpose of this paper is to publish for the first time an analytical survey of the earthworks in their landscape, and to offer a radical reappraisal of the settlement’s history though newly discovered documentation.

 

Excavation And Salvage Work On A Moated Site At Cowick, South Humberside, 1976 - Part Two: The Finds Assemblage by C. Hayfield & J. Greig

Volume 61 of this journal contained a report on the archaeological work that was carried out within the moat of Edward II’s manor house at Cowick. The moat had been cut in 1323, and its subsequent centuries of silting had remained waterlogged and undisturbed until 1976 when the moat was dredged. A shortage of both time and resources restricted archaeological work to a watching-brief of the dredging work. The waterlogged conditions of the moat silts enabled a number of environmental samples to be taken, the results from which formed the substantial part of the first part of this report. The waterlogging also led to the preservation of a wider range of artefact material than might be expected under normal archaeological conditions. The artefact assemblage forms the basis of this second part of the report on Cowick moat.

The artefacts recovered from an excavation should to a certain extent reflect the function of the site, the socio-economic status of its occupants, and its trading connections. For each site this representation is always biased in a number of ways: by what was thrown away; by what was salvaged at the time or carried away when the site was abandoned; by the varying survival rates of the different types of discarded material; by uses and fortunes of the particular part of the site excavated; and finally, by the standards of archaeological recovery employed. At Cowick moat there was little time or scope for careful excavation; most of the finds were recovered by people in waders standing amidst a fine mud slurry feeling around for whatever artefacts came to hand. These included a number of substantial bridge timbers, some wooden artefacts, leatherwork, animal bone, roof and floor tile and a surprisingly large quantity of pottery. All these categories of finds, with the exception of the animal bone, are reported on in this paper.

 

All Saints Church, Crofton by L. Butler

Crofton church, the subject of this paper, stands in a prominent position at the south-western end of a ridge 3 miles south-east of Wakefield. A small medieval settlement was situated on the lower ground north-west of the church; the earliest occupant of this ridge seems to have been an Iron Age hill fort, perhaps later used as a castle but now obscured by landscaping within the grounds of the Old Hall. The low ground where the former rectory and Crofton (New) Hall stand lies on ill-drained shales and clays, subsequently disfigured by coal mining towards Walton and Heath Common and dissected by railways. The upper ground south-east of the church where most of the present village is located contains seventeenth century and later housing. The medieval village was a small township and parish in Agbrigg Wapentake, but its assessed value in the 1334 Lay Subsidy was the fourth highest within the wapentake after Wakefield, Methley and Stanley. It is unusual to have a parish in the area around Wakefield which contains only one township settlement, though there was a minor settlement at Birkwood and the grange of Nostell Priory at Oakenshaw. This single township may indicate the upgrading of a pre-Conquest chapel or a new initiative by the Montbegon family.

 

Markenfield Collar by P. Sheppard Routh & R. Knowles

The livery collar depicted on the fine early fifteenth-century stone effigy of Sir Thomas Markenfield in Ripon Cathedral for long been the subject of conjecture, and in the absence of more precise documentation, is likely to remain so. This article attempts to make a reasoned assessment of its significance.

As far as surviving effigies are concerned, the collar is unique in design. It takes the form of park palings with a central couchant stag behind them.

 

Patrington, A Fifteenth-Century Manorial Account by A. Alexander et al

In the archives of the YAHS are several accounts relating to lands held by the Archbishop of York in 1426/27. They form part of a collection of deeds which were conveyed to the Society in 1913.

These accounts, few of which appear to exist for the Archbishopric in the later medieval period, were suggested by David Michelmore, then the YAHS archivist, as suitable material for study by a group meeting at Claremont in 1978. The group’s leader was Elisabeth Exwood, a lecturer in history at Leeds Polytechnic; unfortunately Elisabeth died in 1983 leaving the task unfinished. As a memorial to her, some members of the group have edited her notes for the introduction and revised the text of the Patrington account.

This account is the most detailed of a collection of documents which includes accounts for Archbishop Kempe’s holdings in Beverley and Hull and for the manors of Bishop Burton, Bishop Wilton, Skidby, Weaverthorpe and Wetwang,all in the old East Riding. The other accounts have also been transcribed by the group and roughly translated; this work has been deposited in the Society’s archives.

 

The Accounts Of The Building Of Trinity House, Hull, 1465-1476 by D. Woodward

A religious guild in honour of the Holy Trinity was founded at Hull in the mid fourteenth century. Open to a wide range of occupations, it provided for both the spiritual needs of its members and their bodily requirements in sickness, old age and death. A century later, in a manner which is not completely understood, it was transformed into a guild of shipmen, skilled in the arts of navigation: in 1456 a group of 24 shipmasters agreed to found a perpetual chantry in Holy Trinity Church to be paid for out of the dues received for handling goods on board ship. The following year, a more ambitious scheme was mooted ― to build an almshouse for mariners impoverished by ‘infortune of the seas’ and it was decided to add a chapel. The realisation of this scheme is considered here. In due course, the ‘Guilde Sancte Trinitatis’, or Trinity House as it is generally known, became a closed shop, admitting only those who could demonstrate navigational expertise. Increasingly, the House controlled the movement of shipping in the River Hull, the Humber Estuary, and adjacent parts of the east coast, providing pilots and navigational aids including buoys and, eventually, lighthouses.

 

The Heraldic Window At Fountains Hall by H. Murray

In the middle of the sixteenth century the medieval art of painting and staining glass was all but lost. The religious troubles of the Reformation and the Elizabethan injunctions which followed brought to an abrupt end the practice of filling church windows with saintly and scriptural subjects. That the art survived was due to a handful of glass painters who supplied, in the main, armorial windows for those who, having benefited from the despoliation of the monasteries, were rich enough to display their heraldic achievements in their homes and in the colleges and almshouses etc., which their wealth allowed them to endow. The Fountains Hall window is studied here as an example.

 

A Sixteenth-Century Parochial Charity At Kildwick by R.W. Hoyle

Readers of my recent edition of the early sixteenth-century lay subsidies for Craven might well have been struck by the size of the assessments placed on the churchwardens of the large parish of Kildwick in the lay subsidies of the 1540s. In both 1543 and 1547 they paid tax on goods valued at £80 making them one of the richest taxpayers in the district. This note explains why the churchwardens were assessed on such large sums for taxation purposes. In the process we shall identify a generous benefactor to the parish and add a further sixteenth-century school to those already known for Yorkshire.

 

Supply Of Water As A Factor In The Location Of Industry (A Case Study Of South Leeds Before 1834) by E.J. Connell

One of the major breakthroughs which made the latter part of the eighteenth century so important in terms of industrial development was the introduction of steam power in the textile industry. It has been frequently stated that the application of the steam engine to the cotton spinning industry freed it from dependence on water power. The newer steam-powered mills were built on the coalfields and not tied to the banks of rivers. Cotton spinning developed in Stockport for example, in an urban setting, where in a short space of time mill chimneys dominated the landscape, and away from remote rural valleys like Cromford, where Arkwright opened his first water-powered cotton spinning mill in 1771.

The purpose of this paper is to consider the influence and importance of the supply of water as a factor in the location of industry, especially the textile industries of South Leeds, which in the early years of the nineteenth century, had woollen, flax and cotton mills all flourishing at the same time.

 

Air Photography: Recent Results. Crop Marks Of An Entrance Through A System Of Linear Ditches At Weaverthorpe, North Yorkshire by D.N. Riley

Aerial Archaeology In Yorkshire: Soil-Marks Near Pocklington by A. Crawshaw

Dr. E. A. Gee (1913-89) [obituary]

Leslie Peter Wenham (1911-90) [obituary]

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