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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 65 (1993)
CONTENTS


 

Investigations Of A Multi-Period Landscape, Potter Brompton, North Yorkshire by M. Johnson Thomas Sheppard

During April-May 1990 parts of a 42 hectare ploughed field in the southern part of the Vale of Pickering were examined in response to proposals for sand extraction. The site was studied by means of air photography, geophysical survey and excavation, which revealed considerable evidence of well preserved multi-period landscapes sealed by deposits of acolian sands. Amongst elements of the later prehistoric landscape parts of a late Iron Age square barrow cemetery were revealed. The results of the investigation are reported here.

 

The Morfitts Of Atwick And Allen Coin Number 223 by B. Sitch

The purpose of this article is to attempt to resolve the confusion surrounding one of the earliest recorded Iron Age coins to be found on the Holderness coast of the East Riding of Yorkshire during the early years of the twentieth century. The gold stater, first mentioned by Thomas Sheppard, Curator of Hull’s Municipal Museum, in 1905, was ultimately listed in Derek Allen’s The Coins of the Coritani (1963, no. 223). Whilst preparing a report for Her Majesty’s Coroner for North Humberside and Scunthorpe regarding the discovery of a Coritanian or Corieltauvian gold stater on the Holderness coast in 1989, Hull City Museums staff collated records of other Iron Age coins found in the region. It became evident that there were two entries for the same coin in Allen’s 1963 corpus: no. 10, an unprovenanced coin in the British Museum collections, and no. 223 from Atwick. Philip Whitting correctly attributed Allen’s unprovenanced coin (no.10) to the Morfitts, a family of antiquaries who lived in the village of Atwick between 1890 and 1929, but failed to realise that no. 223 was the same coin (1969, no. 68). Consequently in his gazetteer of coin hoards and casual losses in the East Riding of Yorkshire, Whitting listed two Iron Age finds with an Atwick provenance when there was only one. Study of the archaeological and numismatic literature relating to this discovery revealed that the confusion stemmed at least in part from Sheppard’s animosity towards the Morfitt family. This article therefore attempts to chart the development of the confusion surrounding Allen’s coin no. 223 and examine the changing relationship between Sheppard and the Morfitts.

 

Headpots: A North African Tradition In Roman York by V.G. Swan & J. Monaghan

Vessels decorated with human facial features constitute a well-known, if rare, class of pottery in Roman Britain. Three discrete groups have been distinguished:- (A) face-pots, comprising jars of ordinary profile on to which stylised facial features have been applied, usually of late first or early second-century date; (B) face-neck flagons or jars, in which the neck or shoulder of the vessel is surmounted by a small, often moulded face, sometimes complete with head-dress (late-third to fourth century); (C) the least common variety, comprising head-pots or head-vases, in which the whole vessel below the rim is fashioned in the form of a head and neck, with naturalistic facial features and hair. It is examples of this last group which form the subject of this paper.

 

Observations In Ripon Cathedral Crypt 1989 by R.A. Hall

In 1974 the creation of a ‘treasury’ in the seventh century crypt of Ripon Cathedral unexpectedly led to a limited programme of archaeological recording. In October 1989, following the transfer of the ‘treasury’ to a new location in the north choir aisle, the dismantling of redundant security screens and the installation of new lighting provided another fleeting opportunity to examine aspects of the crypt’s construction. A photographic record was also made before traces of these and other, previous insertions and alterations in the main chamber, represented by plaster variations, were hidden by infilling and a fresh coat of lime-wash. This article reports the results of these studies.

 

Excavation And Survey On The Line Of Grim's Ditch, West Yorkshire 1977-83 by T. Willmott

Recent excavation and survey work on the line of Grim’s Ditch, a linear earthwork to the east of Leeds, has elucidated the structure, route and alignment of the monument. This work is reported upon. Current opinion on the function, associations and historical context of the earthwork is briefly summarised.

 

Yorkshire Dovecotes And Pigeon Lofts: A Preliminary Survey by A. Whitworth

When A. O Cooke wrote A Book of Dovecotes in 1920, the chapter dealing with the three Ridings of Yorkshire ran to a cursory nine pages and a single illustration by comparison with other chapters discussing smaller individual counties which averaged twenty pages and several illustrations. Such an anomaly has probably been largely responsible for later students of this subject concluding that in the North there is little material to contribute towards their works. Consequently they too have adopted an attitude like that of Cooke. While it may be true that there are fewer examples of the traditional dovecote as we imagine it, there are, nevertheless, a sufficient number and variety to warrant more than a casual glance.

Historically, the keeping and managing of pigeons for food, manure and other uses has origins stretching back into antiquity, but, more important to us, it would appear that the manner of cooping little birds arrived at an architectural divergence also at an early period. The consequence was that three distinct constructional styles of nesting arrangements can be traced existing side by side from medieval times. These, considered here, were the separate dovecote, pigeon-holes leading into an enclosed loft or cavity within a building, and pigeon-holes formed within the walls of a structure.

 

What Was In St. Mary's Tower: An Inventory Of 1610 by B. English & R. Hoyle

St Mary’s Tower in York was built c.1324 as a corner tower to the precinct of St Mary’s Abbey. The existing fabric is less than entirely medieval, for the tower was blown up during the siege of York in 1644 and what stands is a reconstruction of the mid-or later seventeenth century. Prior to this time it had acted as a muniment room for the Court of Augmentations and the Exchequer. What exactly was kept in the Tower was a matter of some dispute and uncertainty until the evidence was sifted by Barbara English and Bernard Barr in an article published in YAJ 1968. They established that it was the archives of Yorkshire monastic houses that were lodged there. Certified copies of documents were issued by the keepers of the tower and in some cases the original archives were transferred to private owners as the crown sold the lands to which they related. Some at least of the charters survived the siege although they are themselves now lost. In particular, it was shown by Barr and English that the tower never contained the lost records of the Council of the North, a point reiterated by Dr Aylmer in his study of the whereabouts of the office of the Council’s secretary.

Contemporaries too were interested in the character of the muniments remaining in St Mary’s Tower and in October 1610 the Lord Treasurer, the Earl of Salisbury, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir Julius Caesar, instructed the Yorkshire auditor, Robert Paddon, to prepare an inventory. The author considers what was in the Tower.

 

Paget Memorial, St. Mary's, Skirpenbeck: Some Problems Considered by A.E. Sharpe

The only effigial monument in St Mary’s Church, Skirpenbeck, East Yorkshire, commemorates Richard Paget (d. 1636), his wife, Jane, and their two children, Theodore and Grissill. Nicholaus Pevsner gives a brief description of the memorial; but apart from a mention of its existence by J. J. Sheahan and T. Whellan and a comment by K. A. Esdale, this seems to have represented the only secondary material on the monument until the present writer’s degree dissertation in 1989. The antiquaries William Dugdale and Torre both fail to pay it any attention. Yet, despite such cursory treatment, the memorial is not only of considerable artistic interest, but, in common with its many counterparts throughout the country, it stands as an historical document and mirror of its times.

Questions concerning the Paget monument’s iconography, as well as its relationship with other contemporary memorials and opinions, are dealt with in some detail both in the dissertation referred to above and in a paper by the present writer elsewhere. Here, the purpose is to consider its form and the changes it seem to have undergone since its initial design and erection, as well as the nature and possible authorship of its most unusual inscriptions.

 

A Noble Funeral In The Great Civil War by R.T. Spence

Henry Clifford, 5th Earl of Cumberland died of a fever on 11 December 1643 aged 51 in Sir William Robinson’s house in the Minster Yard in York which he had rented since quitting Skipton Castle at the end of May. By the Earl’s will of 29 October 1642 his executrices and residuary legatees were his widow, Countess Frances, daughter of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, and their only surviving child, Elizabeth, who through her marriage in 1634 with Richard Boyle, Lord Dungarvon, became Countess of Cork in September 1643 and Countess of Burlington in 1664. Earl Henry, the last of his line, had requested burial not in the Minster (where his widow was to be interred only two months later) but in the family vault in Holy Trinity parish church, Skipton, where also lay two of his sons who had died in infancy and his younger daughter, Lady Frances, buried there as recently as 3 May 1643.

The Royalists’ control of most of Yorkshire eased any difficulties Countess Frances might have encountered in arranging her husband’s funeral, which is considered here. The first priority was to inform speedily those who urgently needed to know the sad news. Letters were sent to Skipton Castle, where Colonel Sir John Mallory had charge of the garrison. Mallory sent on the letters to the Earl’s officers on his Craven lordships, to Mr Edward Guy in Appleby and Colonel Sir Richard Musgrave, the Royalist commander in Westmorland. On Musgrave’s instructions, Guy put a watch on Appleby Castle as soon as the news reached them.

 

A Commentary On Richard Brathwaite's "Barnabae Itinerarium", 1638 by W.E. Tate & E.L. Edmonds

Brathwaite’s life is fairly well recorded. Born in 1588, he was of Westmorland stock, and went up to Oriel College, Oxford, at the tender age of 16. He was a Cavalier High-Churchman, a country gentleman, and a most prolific scribbler. He fought for the King in the Civil War, and dedicated some of his later work to the King’s minister, Stafford.

The name Barnaby was a pseudonym adopted by Brathwaite, who never admitted authorship of the Journal. Indeed it was never finally established until the early nineteenth century, when the antiquary and bibliophile Joseph Haslewood demonstrated it by a painstaking method of textual criticism. Haslewood corrected mistakes of previous editors and his text of the Journal (seventh edition, 1818) has been the basis of all subsequent work on it.

Brathwaite, alias Barnaby is the hero of his book and very much a child of his age. This is true of his political and religious outlook, of his literary style, and of his conventions. It is ironic that of all Brathwaite’s enormous literary output, only this one book of his survived with any degree of popularity. All the rest of his fifty-odd volumes or so are dead and well-buried. So far as is known, no one reads them today and few have ever heard of them. By contrast, The Journal in its Anglo-Latin text has continued to appear in successive editions ever since it first appeared in 1638. Later poet-laureate Robert Southey praised it as the best work of rhymed Latin in modern literature.

 

Robinsons Of Newby Park And Newby Hall, Part 3. Thomas Robinson, Baron Grantham (1695-1770) And His Descendants by G. Hinchliffe

The Robinson family of Newby Park near Topcliffe, later of Newby Hall near Ripon, had been influential in York since Tudor times, and a succession of members of the family had represented the city in the House of Commons. The last of them to do so was Sir William, several times an M.P. in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. He had a large family of which Metcalfe, the eldest son, was intended to manage the family estates, with Tancred entering the Royal Navy and William serving in the Army. This is author’s third article on the history of the family.

 

Industry In A Rural Area: Employment And Wages In The Swaledale And Wensleydale Lead Industry In The Nineteenth Century by C.S. Hallas

Since the term ‘Industrial Revolution’ was coined in the nineteenth century the subject of industrialization has received much attention from historians who have sought to understand and to explain the complexities of the phenomenon. One of the major consequences of industrialization was the massive social and economic upheaval resulting from the concentration of an increasing proportion of the workforce in industrially-based occupations. The dynamics of this movement have been the subject of considerable debate but detailed research has tended to focus on the centres of industrial concentration and on the urban worker and proportionately less attention has been given to the impact of industrialization on rural industry and the rural worker. This topic is examined here.

 

Involvement In Coal Mixing By The Wool Textiles Industry: Some West Yorkshire Examples by W.P. Hartley

During the early nineteenth century, the change from water to steam power in the wool textiles industry increased the demand for coal. In parts of West Yorkshire problems of supply arose because of poor communications. The lack of an effective transport network severely restricted the area over which a colliery might distribute coal. As a result some mill owners began to involve themselves in the coal mining industry, in order to secure supplies. One such, considered here, was was John Foster, who built the Black Dyke mill at Queensbury near Bradford. Foster opened his first colliery, Spring Head, in 1832 initially to serve the local domestic market. Land in the Queensbury district had limited agricultural value and the sinking of pits was a common form of alternative land use.

 

A Redundant Church In Medieval York: A Note On St. Benet's by N.J. Tringham

Amy G. Foster (1905-1991) [obituary]

D.A. Spratt, PhD, FSA (1922-1992) [obituary]

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