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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 67 (1995)
CONTENTS


A Bronze Age Rapier From Catterick Bridge by C. Burgess

In 1992 an archaeological excavation and watching brief was undertaken by Northern Archaeological Associates for the National Rivers Authority during the construction of a river gauging station on the River Swale at Catterick Bridge in North Yorkshire. The recorder house for the gauging station was located on the river terrace on the south bank of the Swale upstream from Catterick Bridge, to the north-east of the third or fourth-century defences of the Roman town of Cataractonium and within the area of the scheduled ancient monument (Wilson 1984).

During the monitoring of excavation for a pylon base on the north bank of the Swale, within the parish of Brompton-on-Swale, a bronze rapier was recovered. The pylon was located on a moderate south-facing slope which formed the edge of the river terrace, just north of the existing riverbank, and the weapon was recovered from the upper level of undifferentiated river gravel deposits which are widespread throughout the Catterick area. The find was not associated with any archaeological features, nor were any other artefacts recovered from within the vicinity of the pylon base.

After it had been cleaned and analysed at the Durham University Conservation Laboratory, the rapier, which is the subject of this paper, was donated to the Yorkshire Museum in York.

 

Excavation Of A D-Shaped Enclosure At Upton, West Yorkshire by I. Roberts

A small D-shaped enclosure was stripped and selectively excavated by West Yorkshire Archaeology Service in the summer and autumn of 1990. The enclosure was defined by a substantial V-shaped ditch, with an entrance in the northern part of its straight eastern side. Despite considerable plough damage and truncation a number of internal features survived. These were predominantly post-holes, two of which produced Roman pottery. A sub-rectangular pit, with a small ash deposit in the bottom, and a further concentric arrangement of features are believed to pre-date the enclosure and are evocative of the remains of small Bronze Age burial mounds. A probable Late Roman cremation was cut into the fill of the enclosure ditch near the entrance. Overall, the evidence relating to the enclosure is not consistent with an occupation site. Rather, it is seen as a small defensible enclosure for corralling small herds of livestock, probably associated with a Roman presence on the nearby limestone outcrop to the north of the site. This article reports the excavation and its findings.

 

Bramham Moor And The Red, White And Brown Battles by W. Pearson

Some battlefields appear to have been used only once; others seem to have been reused, perhaps several times. Although exactly the same field may not have provided the site, at least a cluster of battles may exist, suggesting that some circumstances were present to encourage the recurrence of conflict near the place in question. More than one battle within a locality may indicate traditional knowledge of past encounters there, while a cluster may just imply that the situation had a focal nature that, given the presence of suitable terrain, provided an inherent likelihood for disputes to be decided in its vicinity by the age-old method of the pitched battle.

Such a location is Bramham Moor, where the main Roman roads in Yorkshire met in a sort of ‘Spaghetti-Junction’. To the north the Roman line of the Rudgate has now been usurped by the A1. One of the east-west legs passes through the village of Bramham, while the divergent one further south approaches the A1 near the modern ‘Bramham Cross Roads’. In this paper historical, topographical and linguistic evidence is presented and examined with a view to throwing light on the sites of certain battles from various periods, especially their relationship to Bramham Moor.

 

Excavation Within The Church At The Augustinian Priory Of Gisborough, Cleveland 1985-6 by D.H. Heslop

This article reports the results of an excavation in 1985 and 1986 at the Augustinian Priory at Gisborough, Cleveland, which examined the nave and west end of the church of St Mary. The plan, dating span and much interesting detail of three successive churches was recovered and the available architectural evidence assembled to suggest the above-ground appearance of each building. Clues to the pre-monastic land-use and an unexpected episode of Saxon occupation were also encountered.

 

Social Class Of Yorkshire Medieval Nuns by N. Vickers

About the year 1125, the first of Yorkshire’s twenty four nunneries was founded in York. During the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries there was an upsurge of female interest in the religious life and many women entered nunneries. This paper attempts to show what manner of women they were. Could it be said that the houses were open to all, irrespective of class, and is it possible to find examples of village girls becoming prioresses?

Only Yorkshire nunneries are considered but there is no reason to assume that these differed in their recruitment from any other area. Indeed the southern houses were always larger, wealthier and favoured by members of royalty and the ruling class, rather than the local gentry of northern ones.

Evidence regarding nuns and their families is not abundant but the charters and episcopal registers revealed a pattern and it becomes increasingly obvious that the ladies were drawn from the upper classes. A nunnery was not a democratic society with its members recruited from all classes. It must be noted that the evidence only relates to nuns and that there were lay sisters in a nunnery who were not professed and could have been local villagers alongside the servants.

 

Some Aspects Of The Two Late Medieval Chamberlains' Account Books Of York by J. Muggleston

This article examines the two late medieval chamberlains’ account books, which are located in the York City Archives, primarily from an accountancy viewpoint. It shows how a recurring annual format can be reconstructed, which determines how many years the account books cover, what their contents are, and how they relate to the chamberlains’ account rolls. In addition an accountancy hypothesis will be put forward to suggest that, from the manner in which the records were kept, it is highly unlikely that the two surviving books were the first of their kind to be kept by the chamberlains. An analysis of the freedom entry fees recorded in the account books shows that freemen, excluding gentlemen and aliens, were each expected to pay £1 for the freedom during the middle of the fifteenth century and that such payments were spread out over a number of years. Finally it will argue that the current viewpoint regarding the relationship between the freemen of York and the mayor and his aldermen needs to be reassessed in the light of the evidence provided by the account books.

 

Grindletonianism by D.B. Foss

The small village of Grindleton shares with Plymouth, Clapham and Oxford the rare distinction of lending a locational name to a sect or movement within English Christianity. The contention of this paper is that ‘movement’ describes Grindletonianism more accurately than ‘sect’. There were very few Grindletonians; there was never any question of separate meeting houses or separatist organization; and despite similarities with other radical sects of the seventeenth century, and the tendency of such few individuals as can be identified to spill over into independency or sectarianism, Grindletonianism throughout its short existence was essentially a movement within the Established Church.

Grindleton is an outpost of West Yorkshire, hard by the Lancashire border. It stands below Pendle Hill, that mysterious and fascinating safe haven for all manner of heterodoxy. The area was a centre of the Pilgrimage of Grace (Sawley Abbey), Catholic mission priests and recusancy; Pendle was the Quaker George Fox’s mount of vision, and most notorious of all, the home of the Lancashire witches – good men’s revulsion against both the witch-hunts of 1612 (arguably) and 1634 (certainly) contributed to the development and spread of Grindletonianism.

 

A Note On The Manorial By-Laws Of Royston by E. Edmonds

Royston is a parish 4 miles north-east of Barnsley. After the surrender of Monk Bretton Priory to the Crown in 1538 there appears to be no record of any grant of a manor of Royston. In the survey of the Duchy of Lancaster’s possessions in Charles I’s reign, the Crown or Duchy estate is described as also comprising a few cottages with other lands and tenements in Royston, but no mention is made of a manor. The Duchy records contain full lists of manors and estates in the Honour of Pontefract but no manor of Royston is included, nor is any manor mentioned in parliamentary representation lists of the time. This article considers Royston’s status.

 

The Account Book Of The York Company Of Silkweavers, 1611-1700 by S.D. Hogarth & C.C. Webb

Collared Urns From Oldstead And "Silphoue": A Correction by T.G. Manby

Two Medieval Jugs From The Huddersfiei.D District, West Yorkshire by R.A. Varley

In the collection of the Tolson Memorial Museum, Huddersfield, are two medieval jugs. They were individual finds from Newsome and Marsden and have previously escaped publication. Both jugs were found in fragments which have been reconstructed to their original state. The writer wishes to record his indebtedness to the Tolson Memorial Museum for its co-operation in making the medieval pottery in its keeping available for study and for permission to publish this paper on the two jugs.

 

A Medieval Horse Harness Pendant From Terrington, North Yorkshire by J. Bateman

In the autumn of 1992 a field survey was carried out as part of a wider programme to ascertain the distribution of lithic scatters within a transect of the Howardian Hills, North Yorkshire: the horse harness pendant was found in the plough soil and its position recorded by compass bearing to three datum points. This article records a study of the pendant which is in the form of a pointed shield with an integral loop for suspension from the horse harness. It has a heraldic device of or, three chevronels gules, the arms of Clare. Some red enamel survives in the chevron cells but the surrounding field colour has been lost through corrosion of the surface.

 

The Cult Of 'St.' Thomas Of Lancaster And Its Iconography: A Supplementary Note by J. Edwards

Mrs M.J. Stanley Price, MA, FSA [obituary]

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