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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 70 (1998)
CONTENTS


Prehistoric Habitation Sites At Grassington, North Yorkshire by P.J.Cherry

The purpose of this report is to record a limited survey of Lea Green, Grassington, North Yorkshire, and surrounding areas, for artefactual evidence of prehistoric habitation. The author was engaged in a survey of areas of comparable limestone uplands in eastern Cumbria, the results of which suggest significant connections with eastern Yorkshire as a source of flint from the Late Mesolithic to the Early Bronze Age, and although the presence of Neolithic and bronze-age flint artefacts on Lea Green is well known there was no modern publication giving details of site distribution, artefact typology and affinities or raw materials used comparable to that available for the Yorkshire Wolds. The present survey was therefore begun to provide information for comparison with the evidence from those areas.

All the artefacts described were found in molehills or rabbit scrapes and true associations between groups of artefacts cannot be shown. Also, many of the assemblages have probably been systematically denuded of arrowheads and other visually attractive specimens by collectors for many years. Nevertheless, it was established that the distribution of finds is not random but comprises a number of discrete scatters of flint, chert and volcanic tuff artefacts.

 

Lost Neolithic And Bronze Age finds From Mixenden, Near Halifax, West Yorkshire by R.A. Varley

The discovery of an assemblage of Neolithic and bronze-age implements was made by a countryman while digging peat on Mixenden Moor, near Halifax West Yorkshire, in about 1776. Thomas Whitaker not only had the foresight to record these finds in his book Loidis and Elmete (1816) but also to have them illustrated by coloured drawings. These coloured drawings, with the omission of one arrowhead, appear to bear a real photographic likeness to what the implements must have looked like, which were in the possession of Whitaker in 1816, but may now be lost.

Although these finds were made by chance in the late eighteenth century, it is hoped that this paper will show the importance of such material collected, recorded and illustrated by local antiquarians in their publications, which have been somewhat neglected by pre-historians in their own researches, simply because the material is not available for study.

 

Archaeological Mitigation In The Flavian fort Annexe And Later Roman Settlement At Bradley Street, Castleford, West Yorkshire, 1991-93 by A. Crockett & A.P. Fitzpatrick

Following proposals to construct a new Jobcentre in Castleford, West Yorkshire, on land previously occupied by an iron foundry, an archaeological evaluation was carried out. This revealed evidence for Romano-British deposits and features over most of the site, including a series of large north-south aligned ditches to the east of Bradley Street and a major north-south aligned wall to the west. A mitigation strategy was prepared to minimise the impact of the development on the archaeological resource. This resulted in the excavation of only those areas that would be disturbed by the development. The excavation as carried out in late 1992 and a watching brief was maintained during parts of the construction in 1993.

Previous work in Roman Castleford has identified at least two first century forts. A vicus, which appeared to continue into the second century, has been identified to the south-west of these forts. The results from the work at Bradley Street could neither confirm nor deny the presence of an earlier fort, but dumped material found to the north of a natural scarp/river terrace may represent activity associated with this earlier phase. The presence of an annexe associated with the second fort appeared to be represented by at least two of the six ditches identified. In addition, apparently later structural evidence indicated at least one timber-framed building with associated deposits and finds, indicating activity connected with metalworking, copper alloy in particular.

 

Silver Applique From St Mary Bishophill Senior, York by R.A. Hall

In YAJ 48, Herman Ramm (1976) reported excavations in and around the church of St Mary Bishophill Senior, York. Not surprisingly in this colonia site, occupation began in the Roman period, with a sequence of structures which culminated in late fourth or even, perhaps, fifth-century occupation. There was no sign of any subsequent activity during the Anglian (i.e. pre-Viking) period of the sixth-seventh-mid ninth centuries.

 

St Oswald's Church, Filey; A Late Saxon Minster? G. Sleight

St Oswald’s Parish Church at Filey is situated north of the town on the cliffs just south of the Brigg. Prior to local Government re-organisation in 1974 the boundary between the North and East Ridings lay between the church and the town. The church is a very large cruciform building which on stylistic grounds has conventionally been dated to between 1150 and 1250. However, such a dating fails to make sense of a number of architectural features and renders both the location and the grand scale of the building inexplicable.

The author suggests that the existing structure of the building incorporates work from the end of the first half of the eleventh century, and that the church may have been a re-foundation by Tostig (earl of Northumbria 1055-1065) of an earlier monastic settlement.

 

Medieval And Post-Medieval Port Of Filey by M. Johnson

This paper examines through documentary sources the history of the port of Filey, North Yorkshire, from the earliest known references of the thirteenth century through to those of the nineteenth century. Certain local trades and the town market are also considered through historical records in so far as they relate to the functioning of the port.

An archaeological survey is presented of the stone remains known as ‘Old Quay Rocks’ that is believed to be the pier referred to in late sixteenth and early seventeenth-century documents. Archaeological evidence is similarly presented for quarrying near the port. Documentary and archaeological evidence are dealt with in parts 1 and 2 of this paper; discussion and limited synthesis of Parts 1 and 2 are considered in Part 3.

 

Medieval Incised Grave Cover From Filey Brigg, Filey, North Yorkshire by P. Ottaway

In March 1993 a stone block, probably a grave cover, bearing an incised cross set in a circle was found on Filey Brigg by Mr Carl Whittaker following a period of intense storm activity. The find spot lay amongst rocks at the west end of the Brigg immediately below a small hut formerly used for the sale of refreshments. This paper examines the stone and its apparent history. The block is made of the local sandstone (Lower Calcarious Grit) and the incised design is of medieval type. Although the original context from which it derived cannot be determined, the block may have formed part of the archaeology of the Carr Naze, the promontory of land on the north side of Filey Bay which terminates in the Brigg rocks. The Carr Naze was the site of a late Roman signal station and of intermittent activity in later periods. No medieval structure is known nearer than Filey church c. 1.5 km to the south-west.

 

A Note On Bridge Timbers From The Medieval Moated Site Of Kinsley, Near Wakefield by S. Wrathmell

In 1995, the West Yorkshire Archaeology Service received reports that a number of timbers had been dredged up from the still water-filled north-west arm of Kinsley moat, in the township of Hemsworth, near Wakefield. The site is a Scheduled Ancient Monument, and after discussions with English Heritage it was decided to record the timbers, and to sample them for dendrochronological analysis before returning them to the moat.

Though the precise provenance of the timbers is not known, it can be estimated retrospectively, on the basis of the machine tracks, that they came from an area towards the centre of the north-western area of the moat. In addition to the five oak timbers discussed in the paper as elements of a former bridge substructure, there were two lengths of round-section post, about 150 mm in diameter, which had perhaps been used as piles, several fragments of planking, and two other pieces of timber that may be elements of the bridge superstructure.

 

Henry Maister Of Gothenburg; His Life And Times by J.R. Ashton

Gothenburg is thought to owe more to British influences than any other Scandinavian city. The history of the city, since its foundation in 1621, has been interwoven with that of Britain. Its times of prosperity and those of adversity have been linked to events across the North Sea.

The expansion of Sweden’s foreign trade had been limited by the lack of a port on the west coast. Several attempts had been made over decades to site towns nearer the mouth of the River Göta. These had failed as a result of the wars with the Danes and the Norwegians who occupied the whole of the west coast of Sweden. Early in the 1600s the Swedes gained control of the land round the estuary of the River Göta. The Swedish crown then started negotiations with Dutch commercial interests to induce them to establish an entrepöt there. After much hard bargaining, a charter was agreed and signed in 1621 and Gustavus II Adolphus, the king, gave orders to start building a city to be called Göteborg. A court of aldermen was empowered to govern the infant city consisting of three Dutchmen, three Germans, two Scots and four Swedes. In this context the author examines the activities of Henry Maister whose family business in Hull pioneered the direct trade in iron between Sweden and Britain.

 

Nesbit Hall: The Old Bank House by R. Strong

Nesbit Hall stands on a south-facing hillside in Pudsey, West Yorkshire,anciently known as ‘The Banks’, three miles from the centre of Bradford and only slightly more from the centre of Leeds. Yet its setting, amongst beech trees and overlooking Tong Hall estate and the deep Fulneck valley, is utterly rural. The impression from the south front and the sides is of an eighteenth century stone built gentleman’s house in the classical style, with three bays, the two outer bays each with a pediment containing a blind, bulls-eye window. It is considered to be one of the finest houses in the district. Yet it was not always so. In the seventeenth century, as a fairly typical yeoman’s house, it was smaller (or at least had less hearths) than half a dozen or so other Pudsey houses. Clues to earlier houses on the site lie in the jigsaw of stones and bricks of varying vintages on the back wall, and old timbers encased in some interior walls. This paper examines history of Bank House over the last four hundred years, which in many ways mirrors that of the adjacent community, initially rooted in the land and cloth manufacturing but latterly becoming largely residential.

 

Vessey Pasture; The Development Of A Yorkshire Wold Farmstead by C. Hayfield

As in other parts of the country, the major agricultural changes in the last thirty years of the twentieth century saw a rapid decline in the fortunes of traditional farm buildings on the Yorkshire Wolds. Largely unsuitable for modern needs, they have either been swept away to make way for large modern grain silos and tractor sheds, or else they have been left empty to fall into decay and eventual ruin. The Wharram Research Project during the 1990s, became increasingly involved in the recording of Wold farmsteads as part of the project’s landscape survey. This paper traces the origins and development of the buildings of one such farmstead, Vessey Pasture, south west of Wharram Percy.

 

Girls' Secondary Education In Late Victorian Times, Keighley Girls' Grammar School, 1872-94 by M.L. Baumber

Keighley became the first town in the West Riding of Yorkshire to take advantage of the provisions of the Endowed Schools Act of 1869 with regard to the secondary education of girls, when classes began at what was to be known as the Drake and Tonson School in January 1872. A secondary school for girls was to open at Bingley in 1873 but Bradford did not get one until 1875, Leeds 1876, and Wakefield 1878. Skipton had to wait until 1886. The author explores the reason why Keighley was so quick off the mark, which had much more to do with the difficulties being experienced by the town’s free school than to any deep interest in the education of girls.

 

A Bradford Department Store And Its Victorian Founders by P. Holmes

Bradford shoppers will remember that the department store run by Debenhams at the foot of Manningham Lane which unfortunately burnt down in 1979 was formerly ‘Busby’s’. If their memories are very long they will recall that until 1929 the shop traded under the name of John Holmes and Co. Ltd. It is with the family and business interests of John Holmes that this paper is concerned.

 

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