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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 71 (1999)
CONTENTS


The Great Holderness Harpoon Controversy by B. Sitch & R. Jacobi
During the 1920s two archaeological specimens in a private museum in Holdnerness caused one of the most acrimonious disputes in East Yorkshire archaeology. The Director of Hull Museums, Thomas Sheppard, and an amateur archaeologist from Sheffield, A. Leslie Armstrong, disagreed strongly over the authenticity of two notched bone points in the possession of the Morfitt family of Atwick. Two committees met to consider whether the points were authentic but the outcomes were inconclusive or ambiguous.

The argument raged throughout the 1920s and into the 1930s. Nowadays the bone points are generally regarded as genuine. To the writers’ knowledge, however, a detailed study of the controversy has never been attempted and now that more biographical information is available it may be possible to shed more light it. The case against the so-called Holderness harpoons will be examined in detail, paying particular attention to the questions raised by Thomas Sheppard.

An Iron Age And Romano-British 'Ladder' Settlement At Melton, East Yorkshire by M.C. Bishop
A series of ten trial excavation trenches were located in the South Lawn area at Melton, East Yorkshire, on a ‘ladder’ settlement site previously recorded from aerial photographs. The evaluation was undertaken prior to proposed improvements on the A63. A complex late prehistoric rural landscape of enclosure systems and settlement sites was identified, with important evidence of continuity in the transitional period between the late pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman period. This occupation does not seem to have lasted much beyond the second century AD, although evidence was found of a medieval timber building at the western end of the area examined.

Roman Coins In Whitby Museum by D. Shotter
The Museum’s collection contains 130 legible Roman coins ― in addition to the group excavated at Goldsborough; unfortunately most of these are unprovenanced. The coins range from Claudius I to Arcadius.

This group does not include the small collection which derives from the site of the coastal watchtower at Goldsborough, which is discussed in the article. The record of provenanced coins from the Whitby area is very small.

The Design And Construction Of The Romanesque Church Of St. Mary's Abbey, York by C. Norton
The two grandest buildings ever to grace the skyline of York were started within a few years of each other towards the end of the eleventh century. The Romanesque cathedral of Archbishop Thomas of Bayeux was gradually replaced in a succession of piecemeal reconstructions which resulted in the present Gothic Minster. Long the subject of speculation, the outlines of the Romanesque church have been revealed in the excavations carried out under the Minster in recent decades and in subsequent publications. The contemporary church at St Mary’s Abbey, begun by Abbot Stephen of Whitby, was destroyed towards the end of the thirteenth century. This resulted in the construction of a new Gothic church, the remains of which stand in the Museum Gardens. Practically nothing of the Romanesque church was preserved above ground level, and its rediscovery has been a slow process. Sections of the foundations were uncovered in different excavations between the 1820s and the 1950s, and only recently has the evidence, published and unpublished, been brought together to make possible a re-assessment of the Romanesque church.

Archaeological Survey At The Augustinian Priory Of Gisborough, Cleveland by S.A. Harrison & D.H. Heslop
Excavation in 1985 and 1986 at the Augustinian Priory at Gisborough, Cleveland, examined the nave and west end of the church of St Mary, and was reported in a previous issue of the YAJ (Heslop 1995). The plan, dating span and many interesting details of three successive churches were recovered and the available architectural evidence assembled to suggest the above-ground appearance of each building. This report covers survey and architectural analysis undertaken between 1986 and 1994, and completes the account of work funded by English Heritage as part of the renovation of the monument between those dates.

Whorlton Old Holy Cross Church, Swainby, North Yorkshire by B. Vyner
An archaeological watching and recording brief carried out in conjunction with repair work at Old Holy Cross Church, Whorlton, Swainby, North Yorkshire, recovered the plan of the chantry chapel and clarified the extended structural history of the church. A late eleventh-century grave-slab, utilised in the foundation of the chantry chapel wall, was discovered during the excavation of a drainage trench. The article reports the findings of the excavation.

Staiths (The Early River Jetties Of York, Hull And Howden) by P. Hughes
Port facilities were constructed in prehistoric times and during the Roman period ports existed at both York and London, among other places. Strengthened riverbanks for Viking shipping purposes have been unearthed at those places plus Dublin. In Jetties survive in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire that can conceivably trace their origin back to the previous millennium. These jetties, known as staiths, are recorded from the fifteenth century continuously into the end of the twentieth century. Staiths are the forerunners of the vast structures that are used today This paper describes some of the surviving records concerning those staiths on the Humber estuary. The description is from the view of a practising Humber pilot rather than that of an historian. Firstly the need for the dedicated structure which is a staith is described. Second are some details of how staiths were constructed. Stories that tell of the reason for the staiths - what cargoes were moved across them – are scarce. The concluding sections describe the final flowering of the different types of staiths and causes of their demise are suggested.

Discord And Stability In An Elizabethan Parish: John Otes And Carnaby (1563-1600) by P. Marshall
The English parish clergy of Elizabeth I’s reign can be seen to comprise, in the memorable phrase of Patrick Collinson, a ‘professional minority’ and an ‘incompetent majority’. As successive Archbishops of York were well aware, the minority in their dioceses was particularly small, and the majority disproportionately large. Quite clearly in the latter category was the subject of this paper, John Otes, who for 40 years or so served as minister in the unprepossessing parish of Carnaby near the coast in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Otes’s story, can be told largely because he frequently came to the attention of the authorities for petty disciplinary offences, and because he several times found himself embroiled in proceedings in the consistory court in York. Yet it is one that contains many points of interest for the student of the Elizabethan Church. It portrays vividly the crushing financial difficulties experienced by a number of the clergy, and the effects this could have on lay-clerical relations in the parishes. It illustrates how ineffective the disciplinary mechanisms of visitation and citation could be in bringing about a real and lasting improvement in the behaviour of recalcitrant clergy, but it also reveals how the legal system could be manipulated by the laity to curb the pretensions of an unreasonable pastor. More generally, it exemplifies how the ramifications of the problems of clerical manpower and recruitment, so acute in Elizabeth’s first decade, could still be felt at the very end of the reign, and the implications of this in terms of the so-called ‘professionalisation’ of the parish clergy, and the progress of the Reformation in the North.

Birdsall Manor House: A Later Seventeenth-Century Hunting Lodge by A. Alexander
The Viscounts Irwin had their main residence at Temple Newsam, near Leeds, but they were heirs to lands widely scattered throughout Yorkshire. The estate was mainly assembled in the early seventeenth century by the creator of the family fortune, the financier Sir Arthur Ingram. Among his purchases was the profitable lay rectory of Birdsall, near Malton, North Yorkshire, bought for his son, Sir Arthur the Younger. This property had once belonged to Watton Priory, and had some claim to be a manor in its own right. When the Ingrams took possession, a rectory house already existed. However, the younger Sir Arthur Ingram replaced it with another house in about 1655. This house was described as being for Sir Arthur’s own ‘use and appointment’. Sir Arthur had by this time inherited Temple Newsam, and so he cannot have intended to reside in the much more modest house he built at Birdsall. The paper suggests that the new house was conceived as an informal retreat or ‘hunting-lodge’.

William Lockwood — An Unknown Surveyor 1778-1836 by V. Taylor
On 15 August 1981 the Yorkshire Post reported that ‘a small tattered old book recording a young Yorkshireman’s life and thoughts in the eighteenth century’ had been given to Mr T. Rhynehart of Cherry Burton, North Humberside. He was given an old envelope containing the diary by the late Mrs Betty Huzzard, of Cherry Burton, To Mr Rhynehart the diarist was a mystery but he knew that the writer had lived in Easingwold, North Yorkshire. Enquiries revealed that the diarist was William Lockwood. The article relates aspects Lockwood’s life.

Joseph Warburton (1786 - 1846) Of Pateley Bridge And His Assistant, Dr John Snow by S. Galbraith
During recent research into the early life of Dr John Snow (1813-1858), a famous epidemiologist and anaesthetist, information about the life of Dr Joseph Warburton of Pateley Bridge and his family was obtained. This paper is presented so that this material is available to local historians and others, who may wish to undertake further research into this well known local medical family.

An Electrical Undertaking In Upper Wharfedale In The Early 1900s by H. Masterson
Large electricity supply undertakings in Britain, both municipal and public, attracted brisk investment in the early years of the twentieth century. Their history is well charted in contemporary publications, which have been a fruitful source of research material. Public companies set up in small communities to provide a local electric light supply have had less attention. This paper discusses the history of the Grassington Electric Supply Company Ltd from its beginning in 1909 and suggests why it failed in the 1920s.

Semerwater Crannog: An Archaeological Myth In The Making by R. Martlew & M.W. Holley

An Unrecognised Market At Nafferton? By D.M. Palliser

 

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