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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 81 (2009)
CONTENTS

Mesolithic Sites on Keighley and Oxenhope Moors: The Local Lithic Collection of Stuart W. Feather by Keigh Boughey

Stuart W. Feather (1927-2002), founder and former curator of Bradford Industrial Museum, was in his private time an avid collector of prehistoric material for almost half a century, during which he amassed an impressive lithic collection off the local moorlands surrounding his home time of Keighley in West Yorkshire. Through the kindness of his widow, what remains of this collection was recently passed to the author and others for analysis. The vast majority of this lithic material is later Mesolithic, including characteristic ‘Narrow Blade’ tools, and follow on from the work of previous authors and collectors, such as Crowther, Turner and Gilks, adds considerably to our knowledge of Mesolithic activity in this part of the Pennines.



A Late Iron Age and Romano-British Settlement at High Wold, Bempton Lane, Bridlington, East Yorkshire by Ian Roberts et al

A 1.4 ha excavation, carried out in advance of housing development, investigated the site of a multi-phase settlement datig approximately to between the mid-1st and mid-3rd centuries AD. The earliest later Iron Age activity was represented by a diverse range of apparently unenclosed structures and features, which were replaced by a rectilinear enclosure complex focused upon a principal enclosure containing a central roundhouse. The enclosure complex was subsequently reorganised and expanded, a development which might be equated with a trend from pastoralism towards arable farming. Despite an increase in the adoption of Roman material culture (in the form of pottery), the site seems to have remained essentially native. As well as a notable assemblage of pottery the site has produced significant quantities of animal bone, small assemblages of stone artefacts, ironwork and metalworking residues, six infant burials and a single Roman coin. Earlier prehistoric activity is represented by an assemblage of residual worked flint flakes and tools.

Ian Roberts is Principal Archaeologist with Archaeological Services WYAS.



A Romano-British Settlement at Millfield Farm, Wheldrake, Near York by Gavin Robinson et al

A previously unknown Romano-British settlement was discovered during the summer of 2002 close to Millfield Farm, Wheldrake, to the suth-east of York (SE 668 443) during construction of the Yorkhire Derwent Aqueduct water pipeline between Elvington and Riccall.

Although the site was heavily truncated, five broad phases of activity have been identified based on stratigraphic analysis of excavated features and assessment of datable finds. The evidence suggested a small settlement existing on high ground that dominated a largely flat landscape.

The earliest phase of activity comprised two inner-cut roundhouse ring gullies. These were superseded by a sequence of short linear gullies that may have been part of rectangular timber structures within a ditched enclosure. The settlement during Phase II included at least two enclosures and a small cemetery and possibly a track-way. During Phase III the settlement expanded along the trackway. The full extent of the Romano-British phases of settlement is still unknown although the main focus of activity was probably located on the summit of the ridge, immediately to the south east of the excavation. The pottery broadly dated to the third and fourth century with some possibly from the late second century.

The Romano-British period features were truncated by medieval plough furrows. A post-medieval field boundary and a shallow scoop that cut the furrows comprised the final phase of activity.



The Roman Archaeological Evidence of Holderness by L. Hyland

This article discussed the recorded archaeological evidence for activity in Holderness during the Roman period. A subject which has been sadly neglected. The research demonstrates that the region is far from being archaeologically void, instead a range of Roman period artefacts have been found distributed widely across the Holderness plain. Coin and pottery evidence shows that activity took place throughout the Roman period. A number of occupation sites have been identified and it is suggested that subsistence was agricultural in nature. An examination of Aerial photographic evidence revealed over 100 records to sites of potential prehistoric or Roman activity. There appears to be a correlation between the location of the evidence and, areas of alluvium and water courses. This may indicate that water transport, and access to the River Humber, was important. Though the nature of the activity is poorly understood and the evidence asks more questions than it answers, there is archaeology yet to be discovered, and the area is deserving of a more detailed investigation.



Charles Howard, Third Earl of Carlisle (1669-1738): Gathering up the Fragments by Quentin Harcourt Wilson

This article demonstrates how our present understanding of the contribution of Charles Howard, third Earl of Carlisle (1669-1738) to the life of his own generation is amplified by considering the small but significant number of literary texts associated with him held in the archives at Castle Howard, and their relationship with other contemporary documents.



Yorkshire Estates and Mineral Exploitation, 1750-1830 by David S. Cross

This article considers some of the factors affecting the growth of the expolitation of the mineral resources, especially coal, lying under a number of estates in the districts around Huddersfield and Halifax, 1750-1830. These factors include the area’s geological characteristics and the availability of access to transport systems, particularly canals. The evolution of legal and commercial structurs is also considered, as is the development of technical and merchantile expertise on the part of both estate owners and coalmasters.



William Battie Wrightson MP and Northallerton: A whig and a Small Parliamentary Borough, 1832-1874 by Brian Barber

William Battie Wrightson (1789-1879) was the third and final member of his family of Yorkshire gentry to serve as a Member of Parliament. A Whig like his father William Wrightson, he enjoyed a political career that spanned over sixty years. He was first approached to stand at Lincoln in 1811 and then elected but immediately unseated in Retford in 1828. He sat for Hull between 1830 and 1832 and, after an initial reversal, represented Northallerton, a small borough where he had family connections, from 1835 until 1865. He was the unsuccessful candidate there in 1866, dod not stand in 1868 but stood once more in 1874, although he again failed to take the seat. His career as a representative member of the Whig gentry on the backbenches in the middle of the nineteenth century touches on some of the preoccupations and characteristics of his class in mid-Victorian parliaments.



Archbishop Harcourt's Recruitment of Literate Clergymen: Part 2. Clerical Seminaries for Literates in the Diocese of York, 1800-1849 by Sara Slinn

Part 1 of ‘Archbishop Harcourt’s Recruitment of Literate Clergymen’, examined the nature of the reliance of York diocese on non-graduate recruits to the clerical profession. Part 2 examines how there ‘literate’ men prepared for ordination, focusing particularly on the operation of ‘tutors for orders’ in the diocese. In the first two decades of the nineteenth century, both the Church Missionary Society and the Elland Society made considerable use of certain tutors to prepare their proteges for ordination. John Buckworth, vicar of Bradford, Edward Parkin, curate of Slaithwaite and others co-opted in preparing men both for the mission field and the home ministry. The Elland Clerical Education Society made great use of Thomas Rogers of Wakefield, Samuel Knight of Halifax and Walter Smith of Almondbury, men whose own education had been funded by the Society. From 1827 Harcourt sought to regulate how literates prepared for orders and, as part of this, he appointed certain clergy to give approved preparation. The most significant of these men were James Knight of Halifax, Thomas Rogers of Wakefield, James Bardsley of Wilsden and William Snowden of Bawtry and Swillington. Buy by the 1840s graduates were willing to take almost all the titles in the diocese which meant that these small seminaries became redundant.



The Nineteenth Century Limekilns at Barnby Basin, South Yorkshire by Harold Taylor

The remains of nine limekilns survive at Barnby Basin, the former terminus of the Barnsley Canal, near the village of Cawthorne. This article uses busines records and other contemporary evidence to look at trade on the canal and the distribution of lime products for building and agricultural purposes along the turnpikes of the hinterland of Barnby to the south, east and north, especially to the Holmfirth area. The canal was completed to Barnby in 1802 and the kilns continued in use until the early 1870s, by which time the transportation in the area had been revolutionised by the development of the railways.



Clogs in the Wheel Pit: The Clogs From Woodlands Mill, Steeton by Linzi Harvey

Two wooden soled shoes with decorated clasps were recovered during historic building recording of the former Woodlands Mill in Steeton, West Yorkshire by Arhaeological Consultancy and Research at the University of Sheffield (ARCUS). They were found in a small recess in a wall, 3 to 4 metres above ground level, within a wheel pit. With the wheel in place, it would have been impossible to access this alcove, indicating that these items are ‘concealed shoes’ (Swann 1996). The deliberate secretion of old shoes within buildings is not unusual. It is a long-established superstition, common in the seventeenth century and continuing into the twentieth, with a possible fourteenth century origin.



Documents: Small Print: Memories of a Family Business by Brian Stevenson

The essay on which this piece is based was submitted for the Yorkshire Society’s Bramley Prize in 2007. The judges thought that it provided an important account of an episode in Leeds history, and this edited version is now printed as a contribution to source material on the local economic history of Leeds over the past hundred years. It concerns the changing fortunes of a family business of printers and bookbinders, recalling old craft skills now becoming as remote a memory as the buildings in central Leeds where the firm once operated. Though the focus of this contribution is the family business, two sections are added, by way of explanation, on the basic techniques of machine ruling and of bookbinding which were central to the firm’s activities.



A Revised Interprettion for the Isotope Data From the Medieval Cemetery at Riccall Landing by C.A. Chenery & J.A Evans

The recent paper by Hall et al 2009 is a welcome publication that includes isotope data data on tooth enamel froma number of individuals. While the interpretation within the papers is not incorrect, in the time between the production of the data and the publication, some of the samples were re-analysed for oxygen isotope composition, by a more consistent and reliable method, and more stronium isotope data is available for comparative studies. Hence we submit this note to update the dataset and context for the Riccall individuals described in Hall et al 2009.



Communications: The Yorkshire Country House Partnership by Christopher Ridgeway and Allen Warren

This communication provides information about the Yorkshire Country House Partnership, established ten years ago between the University of York and seven Yorkshire country houses. It outlines the achievements so far and plans for the future.



A Romanesque Corbel at Kildwick Church, North Yorkshire by Rita Wood

The stone in question has recently been discussed in this journal as an early carved head of pre-Conquest date, and as perhaps representing the face of Odin.



Dr Derek Linstrum [obituary]
Masie Morton [obituary]
Miss Marie Hartley [obituary]
Vivien Swann [obituary]

 

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