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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 82 (2010)
CONTENTS


Palaeolithic Environmental Evidence from deposits at Bedale, North Yorkshire by Benjamin Gearey and Enid Allison et al

A phased programme of archaeological investigations was undertaken by Pre-Construct Archaeology Limited in advance of development of land to the rear of 26 Market Place, Bedale, North Yorkshire. The archaeological project was commissioned by CgMs Consulting, on behalf of McCarthy and Stone (Developments) Limited, and monitored by the Heritage Unit of North Yorkshire County Council, on behalf of the Local Planning Authority, Hambleton District Council. A preliminary archaeological evaluation, undertaken in spring 2002, revealed the presence of a prehistoric wetland area. This comprised substantial organic silt sediments representing deposition within a body of water, such as a lake or palaeochannel, overlain by an extensive peat formation. Radiocarbon dating of the peat placed accumulation of the material in the Mesolithic period. Archaeological remains of medieval and post-medieval date were also recorded in the evaluation trenches. A more extensive open area excavation was undertaken, in the autumn of 2003, in order to further investigate the ancient wetland and overlying medieval deposits. The excavation focussed on the footprint of the main building in the development and comprised an irregular, but roughly rectangular, trench with maximum dimensions 65m NE-SW x 22m NW-SE, covering c. 1,100 square metres. A paper describing the medieval and post-medieval archaeological remains (Proctor et al. 2008) also contains full details of the site location and description, historical background and archaeological methodologies employed, but relevant information is summarised here. Full details of the earlier assessment and subsequent works are presented in Carrott et al. (2004) and Gearey et al. (2006), respectively.

Neolithic Settlement Evidence from Hayton, East Yorks by Peter Halkon, T.G. Manby, Martin Millett and Helen Woodhouse with contributions from others

In the period 1995-2001, excavations were undertaken on an Iron Age and Romano-British settlement at Burnby Lane, Hayton, East Riding of Yorkshire, as part of the Hayton Landscape Project. Throughout these excavations prehistoric worked flints were consistently found in the topsoil and re-deposited in other contexts. During the 1999 excavation season a group of four shallow pits containing Neolithic pottery were excavated. The present paper provides a report on these features and their contents. Full information on the later phase of the site will be the subject of a forthcoming monograph (Halkon et al. In prep.). The finds and site archive are held at Hull City Museums (Accession no. KINCM 1020.1995).

The Druid's Altar: a 'Scottish' Stone Circle in Craven, North Yorkshire by R. Martlew

A topographical and geophysical survey of the Druids’ Altar, near Malham, North Yorkshire, was carried out for the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority in 2007. Several different interpretations of the site have been put forward in the past; the surveys identified additional evidence to support its identification as a Bronze Age Four Poster stone circle, including an outlying stone not previously recorded. A detailed examination of the horizon and view from the site suggest a deliberate choice of location, from which midwinter sunset and the southernmost setting of the moon coincide with prominent horizon features.

Excavations at Low Fisher Gate, Doncaster, South Yorkshire by J.M. McComish, A.J. Mainman, A. Jenner and N. Rogers (York Archaeological Trust)

The excavations at Low Fisher Gate, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, produced a sequence of urban deposits dating from the late eleventh/twelfth century to the eighteenth century. These included a riverside structure of early thirteenth-century date, made in part from reused boat timbers, together with a series of superimposed tenement buildings of thirteenth- to sixteenth-century date and some post-medieval features. The site seems to have had mixed domestic and industrial functions throughout its history.

Lime Kilns in the Central Pennines: Results of a Field Survey in the Yorkshire Dales and Contiguous Areas of North and West Yorkshire by David Johnson

Nearly 1500 lime kilns have been located and fully surveyed within the Yorkshire Dales National Park and surrounding parishes over the past fifteen years. It is arguably the most comprehensive lime kiln survey ever undertaken in the country. The article begins with a historical review of lime kilns and lime usage within the area before outlining the methodology employed in the field survey and analysing the results.

Defaming the Dead: a Contested Ghost Story from Fifteenth-Century Yorkshire by R.N. Swanson

The doctrine of Purgatory made ghosts a credible phenomenon in pre-Reformation England, with Yorkshire providing a notable clutch of ghost stores from the early fifteenth century. A case brought in the consistory court at York in 1424 nevertheless shows that ghost stories were not always believed, and might be challenged and rebutted through disciplinary processes. However, whether such processes are really evidence for the blanket denial of the existence of ghosts remains an open question.

The Tower of Abbot Marmaduke Huby of Fountains Abbey: Hubris or Piety? By Michael Carter

The bell tower built by Abbot Marmaduke Huby (1495-1526) at the Cistercian monastery of Fountains has often been regarded as self-aggrandizement. However, a different interpretation is possible when the content of the three bands of inscriptions around the tower’s upper storeys are considered. These contain texts from the offices sung at a Cistercian monastery on a Sunday. Several have been adapted to express devotion to the Holy Name of Jesus. The inscriptions, and the identity and location of the three saints’ images on the tower, mean that the structure can be interpreted as an expression of Huby’s personal devotions and of his dedication to monastic reform.

William Wrightson (1676-1760), the Pipe Office of the Exchequer, and the Re-building of Cusworth Hall by Brian Barber

William Wrightson (1676-1760) had landholdings in both Yorkshire and the North East, and represented Newcastle and then Northumberland in successive Parliaments. In 1724 he inherited the family estate at Cusworth, near Doncaster, where between 1740 and 1753 he rebuilt the hall. This article makes additions and amendments to his biographical entry in ‘The History of Parliament’ and also describes, largely from his own papers, the workings of the Pipe Office of the Exchequer where he held a sinecure that provided a substantial supplement to the income from his landed estates, providing the means by which he rebuilt his family seat. An Appendix contains brief details of the clerks and attorneys of the Pipe Office from 1732 to 1833, when the Office as abolished.

The Seventh Earl of Carlisle and the Castle Howard Estate: Whiggery, Religion and Improvement, 1830-1864 by David Gent

This article explores the role played by the early-Victorian Whig aristocrat and politician, George Howard (1802-1864), seventh Earl of Carlisle, in improving his estate at Castle Howard in the North Riding. Carlisle instigated numerous changes in the productive landscape of the estate, and attempted to reform the social and moral condition of his tenantry through a number of projects. The article places those developments in the context of Carlisle’s political and religious values. In doing so, it poses a challenge to the existing historiography of both the history of Whiggery and of the country house.

Bishop William Stubbs and Knaresborough by Richard M. Koch

William Stubbs (1825-1901), pioneering medieval historian, academic, Regius Professor at Oxford, clergyman and later bishop of Chester and then Oxford, was born in Knaresborough and, despite living most of his adult life outside the county, he remained true to his Yorkshire roots. This article shows how his Knaresborough background shaped him as a historian. His first encounter with medieval history was in the archives at Knaresborough Castle; his schooling in Knaresborough and Ripon, and the support he received from the Diocese of Ripon enabled him to rise from poverty to a scholarship at Christ Church, Oxford; and his interests and view of English history continued to reflect his early experiences in Knaresborough, the historic past of the town and his own family’s roots in the area over at least sixteen generations. Stubbs subscribed to the Thoresby Society and was a critical friend of the Yorkshire Archaeological & Historical Society. His legacy as a great editor of medieval manuscripts has been maintained through successive generations of scholars, not least at the University of Leeds, through the work of the late John Taylor.

'Of Modern Origin and Spurious Character': The Hull Celebrities and the Johnson Manuscript by Paul Leaver

The title of this article, ‘Of Modern Origin and Spurious Character’, is one of many comments made regarding a volume published in 1876 entitled ‘Sketches of Hull Celebrities or Memoirs and Correspondence of Alderman Thomas Johnson and four lineal descendants from the Year 1640 to 1858’ which was to embroil many people in Hull and the surrounding area in debate concerning its authenticity, including among others local antiquarians, councillors, a records clerk, and an M.P. and newspaper proprietor.

Newton Wallis: The Evolution of a Landscape by Edgar N. Pickles

Newton Wallis was a small medieval settlement on the north bank of the river Aire in the parish of Ledsham, which may have become deserted from the fourteenth century and was never more than a hamlet until the early nineteenth century, when coal mining transformed the settlement. With the end of mining in the mid-twentieth century the houses were demolished, and the site became part of a nature reserve and Site of Special Scientific Interest known as Fairburn Ings.

Communications:
Danelaw Centre for Living History at the Yorkshire Museum of Farming, Murton Park, York by Mike Tyler

Mrs Kate M. Mason [obituary]
Dr K.J. Allison [obituary]
John Taylor
[obituary]

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