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YORKSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL

Volume 85 (2013)
CONTENTS


150th Anniversary Papers:

The Development of Archaeological Thought as Evidenced in the Yorkshire Archaeological Journal by John Collis
The article explores the role of the Yorkshire Archaeological Journal not only as a journal of record, but also as an innovator in the development of archaeological ideas such as landscape archaeology, aerial photography and open-area archaeology, as well as more traditional approaches, for instance tackling historical questions such as the Roman conquest of Britain. It deals with the changes of paradigm which affected both the types of fieldwork carried out and nature of interpretation in both a British and European context. With the work of Raistrick on landscape history and of Beresford on deserted medieval villages, its publications have had an impact far beyond the boundaries of the county. The YAHS has also acted as a meeting place for the various institutions which have engaged in archaeology in the county both professional and amateur.

Personalities and Publishing; Two Aspects of the History of the Yorkshire Archaeological & Historical Society, 1863-2013 by Brian Barber
This anniversary article surveys the personalities of the leading members of the Yorkshire Archaeological & Historical Society over its 150 year history and relates their changing background to wide changes in society over the period. It then describes the various publishing ventures which leading members initiated, and which form the Society’s permanent legacy to the history of Yorkshire.

Articles:

Iron Age Saltworking on the Yorkshire Coast at Street Houses, Loftus, Cleveland by Stephen J. Sherlock and Blaise Vyner

This report presents the first evidence for structures associated with saltworking in Yorkshire. The report concerns an Iron Age settlement at Street House, North Yorkshire, that commences in the Later Iron Age and continues into the second century AD. One interesting feature is how the site evolved to incorporate saltworking at an altitude of 170 metres. The parallels for saltworking in Fenland and the Dorset coast are discussed in terms of materials, methods and technology. One consequence of this is the question of how widely was the product distributed since briquetage has been found up to 60 km inland from the Yorkshire coast at Rock Castle, Gilling.

Pontefract: A Review of the Evidence for the Medieval Town by Ian Roberts and Christopher Whittick

The excavations carried out in the eastern part of Pontefract over the last quarter of a century have provided significant new information about the pre-Conquest settlement; the evidence providing a compelling case for Pontefract having been not only the site of the documented royal vill, but also that of an Anglo-Saxon minster. By comparison there is relatively little archaeological evidence for the twelfth-century borough and the later medieval town to the south-west of the castle, our understanding of which is still heavily reliant on documentary evidence.

The Romanesque Sculpture at Adel Church, West Riding – A Suggested Interpretation by Rita Wood

Adel church belonged to Holy Trinity Priory in York, a dependency of Marmoutier Abbey, near Tours. The simple building has many sculptures on corbels, doorway and gable, and chancel arch; the programme illustrates the Second Coming of Christ (outside) and the general resurrection (inside). The entrance has suffered from weathering, but is still largely legible; it includes some novelties among its standard iconography, but the chancel arch has many more. Fourth-century baptism addresses by Cyril of Jerusalem are referred to in the capitals of the chancel arch; there are newborn babies carved in the arch itself to represent those resurrected; and the character of beakheads is made clearer. It is suggested that a designer from Marmoutier and workmen from Normandy could have been involved, and that the date would be earlier than c. 1148.

An English Pre-Reformation Processional Cross at the Bar Convent, York by Michael Carter

Only a handful of processional crosses survived the English Reformation. A bronze cross in the museum of the Bar Convent, York, should be added to the corpus of surviving material. The exact provenance of the cross is unknown, but it is likely to have survived because of its ownership by a Catholic gentry family.

Searching for Brunanburh: The Yorkshire Context of the 'Great War' of 937 by Michael Wood

The site of the Battle of Brunanburh has long been controversial, but a consensus has grown over the last few years that it should be located in the Wirral. This article sets out to show that the events of the war of 937 must be understood in the context of Northumbrian history in the Viking age, and that the battle probably took place south of York in the main war zone of the second quarter of the tenth century. A new location is proposed near the River Went, whose name it is suggested is contained in an alternative Northumbrian name for the battle, Wendun.

The Domestic Economy of the Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Holmfirth Textile Industry by David Hey

The Holmfirth area, known anciently as the Graveship of Holme lay towards the south-western edge of the West Riding woollen cloth district. It shared the classic domestic economy of the textile region, whereby the manufacture of pieces of cloth was combined with small-scale farming. In this study, 101 probate inventories surviving from 1690 to 1762 are examined in detail to explain the working of this system. In particular, the inventories provide rich evidence of every stage in the manufacture and marketing of woollen cloth. The Graveship of Holme never acquired the wealth associated with the clothiers of the Calder Valley, but its inhabitants were typical of those who lived in the moorland districts further south.

Joseph Aloysius Hansom (1803-82): His Yorkshire Works, Patronage and Contributions to the Catholic Revival by Penelope Harris

The York origins of the Roman Catholic architect Joseph Aloysius Hansom have largely been overlooked. Here, their significance is presented in a fresh perspective. Hansom was born in Micklegate, York, at the heart of a thriving Catholic community, and through his grandmother’s home parish of Everingham gained access to influential Catholic families. His immediate family comprised several generations of builders, while the period into which he was born – which saw the aftermath of the French Revolution, an influx of Irish immigrants, and rapid industrial and urban growth, together with the Gothic Revival and the Catholic Revival – gave every opportunity for a talented and entrepreneurial architect to make his mark. To these are added Hansom’s flair for generating and maintaining personal contacts, the foundation upon which his success was based. A summary of his main work across the county shows how his career developed and highlights the rich diversity of his work.

Attercliffe, Sheffield: The Rise of Labour Examined in Two By-Elections, 1894-1909 by David Vessey

The challenge of Labour to the Liberal Party’s traditional dominance over working-class political allegiance in early twentieth century Britain was most purposeful in the urban, industrialised heartlands of northern England. This article examines developments in Sheffield, more specifically the Attercliffe constituency, evaluating the long-term transformation in Labour’s fortunes, especially in the by-elections of 1894 and 1909. It considers how the 1894 contest set Labour on a path to political independence, distinguishing Sheffield from a pattern of Lib-Lab co-operation elsewhere in Britain and culminating in Joseph Pointer’s victory as the city’s first Labour MP in 1909. Coinciding with the introduction of Lloyd George’s famous ‘People’s Budget’, the 1909 by-election effectively acted as a test case for the appeal of New Liberalism’s welfare reforms, set against the unashamed polarised message of Labour to the working class.

Communication:

Creating an Industrial History Database for Yorkshire by Robert Vickers

Elizabeth K. Berry [obituary]